Basically, problems with clean air prevail in big cities. The air is polluted by exhaust gases, various fumes and dust, emissions from enterprises, etc. This air enters our homes, accumulates in the premises, people breathe it, sometimes not even suspecting that their health is gradually beginning to deteriorate precisely because of the polluted atmosphere. Most people do not even know that a simple air purifier, bought or made by oneself, can solve this problem.
How an air purifier works
So, in order to get rid of the small particles present in the air, many methods of cleaning it have been invented. But one thing unites them all operating principle: the flow of polluted air is sucked into the unit, passes through a filter (it can be water, electrostatic, carbon or other) and is blown out by the fan already free of contaminants.
The figure below shows the principle of operation of an air purifier, in which several purification phases are combined, where the air passes through a coarse filter, an ionizer and a UV emitter. Further, the air flow collides with water, which takes away dust particles, and leaves the unit already humidified, clean and with negatively charged oxygen ions.
There are a large number of devices on sale, both of complex design and simpler ones, which successfully purify indoor air. But for some consumers, the price of them may seem very high, and therefore they are prone to improvisation and making such devices with their own hands. You are unlikely to be able to design an electronic device at home using high technology. But it is quite possible for a home master to assemble some simple models of air purifiers.
Air purifier options
First of all, it should be understood that its design depends on the conditions under which and for what purposes the air purifier will have to be used. For example, if the room has normal humidity, but dust is flying in the air, then you can remove it by making car filter cleanerlike in this video.
Air purifier for dry rooms
In rooms with low humidity, in addition to cleaning from dust, it is required to raise this humidity to values at which a person will feel more comfortable, namely up to 40-60%.
A simple device for these purposes is easy to assemble yourself, and it will consist of a plastic container and a cooler from a computer. This is done simply.
- Cut 2 holes in the lid of the container: one for the fan, the second for air to escape.
- Screw the cooler to the cover using self-tapping screws.
Wet room cleaner
High humidity in the room also brings a lot of problems: the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, the rapid growth of mold fungi on the walls, damage to furniture and musical instruments, etc. Also, high humidity is harmful to the garage, or rather to the car in which you keep it. To dry and purify the air, you will need the use of materials that can absorb excess moisture. The simplest material is ordinary salt.
Before using for these purposes, salt should be roasted in the oven for several hours. Only in this case it will most effectively absorb moisture from the air.
A home-made apparatus for cleaning and drying air is done in exactly the same way as for humidification, but with slight differences:
- high fan speeds are not required (salt will scatter over the container), so charging from a phone with a 5V output will be enough;
- instead of water, a thick layer of salt 3-4 cm is poured onto the bottom of the container.
However, technological progress does not stand still, and a more effective, moisture-absorbing material has been found – this silica gel. You met him when buying shoes – these are bags with small balls.
Silica gel is a non-toxic substance composed of silicon dioxide.
Caution should be exercised if there are small children in the house. Make sure that the child does not eat this substance, as cobalt chloride may be present in its composition – poison if taken orally.
Silica gel can be bought in different packaging in Chinese online stores. The advantage of this tool over ordinary salt is that a much smaller amount of it will be required for the efficient operation of the unit.
Some types of silicon dioxide have special coloringas shown in the following photo.
This dye acts as an indicator: when the crystals are dry, it is blue, but when the substance absorbs maximum moisture, it turns pink. To restore the crystals, they are placed in the microwave for 8 minutes at the lowest power. Based on these data, silica gel works more efficiently in devices that purify the air from moisture.
Purifier with carbon filter
The use of activated carbon for air purification is indicated if it is necessary to remove unpleasant odors from it, for example, when it is necessary to get rid of tobacco smoke. Charcoal is also effective in removing some of the toxic substances dissolved in the air. A simple charcoal cleaner can be made from plastic pipes, but first you need to prepare the necessary materials:
- two meter sewer pipes (sewage), diameters 200/210 mm and 150/160 mm;
- adapter (ventilation) – with a diameter of 150/200 mm;
- plugs for 210 and 160 mm;
- metal mesh (you can use a paint mesh, with a small mesh size);
- aluminum tape;
- about 2 kg of any activated carbon;
- drill with nozzles;
- large needle and kapron thread.
The figure below shows what the adapter, plug and pipe look like.
Below is the algorithm for performing work.
- Cut the outer pipe (200/210 mm) to 77 mm and the inner pipe (150/160 mm) to 75 mm, remove all burrs.
- Next, wrap the outer pipe with a masking net and sew it together using 2 clamps 190/210 for convenience. They will ensure a good fit of the mesh to the pipe. It is required to stretch the mesh first from the thick side of the pipe.
- Remove the protruding ends of the mesh with wire cutters, and excess agrofiber with scissors or a blade.
The next step in the manufacture of the filter will be filling it with charcoal. It is recommended to use coal with a fraction of 5.5 mm grade AP-B. But another one is also possible, for example, the one that is used to purify water with a fraction of 2.5 mm.
Before refueling, the coal must be sieved through a sieve to remove fine dust from it.
Coal is poured slowly so that voids do not form. It will take about 2 kg of coal to fill. When filling, it is required to knock the pipe on the floor from time to time so that the filler fills the entire space evenly.
When the space between the pipes is completely filled, put on the adapter, which will serve as a cover that holds the coal. After that, using a sealant, cover a small gap between the adapter and the inner pipe.
At this stage, the assembly of the air cleaner is completed. After the sealant has dried, a duct fan can be inserted into the adapter so that it draws air from the filter and blows it into the room. Also, this filter can be applied to the house by embedding it into the ventilation duct.
Thanks to him, clean, odor-free air will enter the house.
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